Technology Transfer Issue’s
Technology transfer, also called transfer of technology (TOT), is the process of transferring technology from the places and in-groups of its organization to wider distribution among more people and places.
The appropriate technology aims at endogenous technological development within local communities and regions as a fresh approach to theproblems of technology, society, and environment. … Cultures often influence how technology is used in the technology transfer process.
Implementation of Technology Transfer
The major channels for transferring technology include trade in products, trade in knowledge and technology, foreign direct investment, contractual agreements and international and international movement of people. Although direct investment is considered as one of the most important channels, trade in products and intranational and international movement of people has become an important channel as well. Multinational firms possess the abilities to undertake successful technology transfer in developing countries (United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 1996). These abilities depend not just on their individual efforts, but also on the characteristics of the national system of innovation of host countries, which is defined as a network of public and private institutions located within national borders whose activities and interactions enable the generation, importation, assimilation, modification, diffusion and use of knowledge. In a national system of innovation there is an interaction between six main subsystems: productive, scientific and technological, management, education and training, financial, and the administrative regulatory system. In most developing countries, national systems of innovation tend to be weak and unstructured.
Shahidulah asserts that there are two scenarios for a technology transfer to take place:
1) There must be an absorptive capacity in the receiver country, and
2) Technology transfer and capacity building are two events that have to occur at the same time
Assessment in Technology Management
The effective management of technology as a source of competitive advantage is of vital importance for many organizations. It is necessary to understand, communicate and integrate technology strategy with marketing, financial, operations and human resource strategies. This is of particular importance when one considers the increasing cost, pace and complexity of technology developments, combined with shortening product life cycles.
Several methods have been developed to assess technologies and system maturities serving the needs of the firm or institution, or a specific technical domain:
- Technology Readiness Level (TRL)
- System Readiness Level (SRL)
- Integration Readiness Level (IRL)
- Integrated methods such as Technology Impact Evaluation and Selection (TIES)
Top 10 considerations for selecting a technology
- Establish A Partitioning Strategy Based On Utilization.
Co-locate multiple system instances (monitoring and reporting, for example) on a single system with adequate spare capacity. Isolate system instances with high utilization requirements on servers with adequate capacity for future scaling (adding additional CPUs or memory).
- Skill level of IT staff.
Do you plan to run clusters or multiple servers in a load-balanced configuration to increase the availability of the environment? Practical experience shows that organizations with lower administration and engineering skill sets should stick with running multiple servers at lower utilization rates. Lack of skilled staff combined with running clustered servers in any OS can actually reduce availability, rather than increase it.
- Security concerns.
Every OS is susceptible to security breaches if not patched properly and in a timely manner. The increased popularity of Linux in the last few years has led to ever-increasing attempts to exploit vulnerabilities in that OS. Check security sites like www.Secunia.com for a broad perspective on the risks inherent in each OS. Compare the risks and analyze the total costs associated with patching the operating systems you are considering.
When considering the TCO of a platform don’t forget to include staffing costs. Studies show that the single biggest cost in IT is staffing. Hardware and software costs rarely account for more than 28% of TCO over 3 years. These percentages fall even further over a 4-5 year timeline. Linux and UNIX administrative support costs 10%-30% more than equivalent Windows staff, and fewer qualified Linux personnel in the job market increase direct hire support costs.
- Remember that open source isn’t free.
Every major Linux vendor charges for technical support, warranties and licensing indemnification. These costs must be factored into the TCO and ROI.
- Hardware support and repair options.
Consider all available options before settling on one. Buying and deploying redundant hardware that the staff isn’t trained on can result in a longer downtime scenario because it takes the staff longer to diagnose and fix the problem. It may be more cost effective to purchase a premium 4-hour on-site support contract with a vendor to repair/replace/troubleshoot an issue.
- Power requirements.
Windows- and Linux-based servers have approximately half the power consumption of Sun servers. In a data center with UPS and generators nearing capacity, this can make a difference in the timing of an expensive facility upgrade.
- Read the roadmap.
Get in touch with the product marketing team for the hardware and operating systems you are considering. Find out the 3-5 year plans for specific features and components of interest to your organization. Try to match up corporate rollout plans with the products that will have the longest support window.
- Synch up with development teams.
If you’re making a platform selection that will become an enterprise standard, ensure all infrastructure in development and test environments is included in efforts to roll out the corporate platform, at least in terms of OS and complexity. Include these costs in the TCO analysis.
10) Scalability and performance.
Whether you scale up or out, start by picking the right hardware for the job. The basic requirements to gather and analyze include:
- I/O and CPU intensity of the application
- Maximum CPU scalability of the application
- Acceptable rate of utilization
- Required level of availability